Stealing Fire

Fire, Wood Fire, Flame, Burn, Brand

To students of mythology, particular characters from the myths, legends and folktales of the many cultures are often called the gods, sometimes as culture heroes, occasionally deities or higher spirits disguised in animal form. Mankind has discovered exceedingly useful lessons and contains generally ascribed that new knowledge to such beings; some noted person or creature, typically a deity in some form or other, because society’s cultural mythology. These mythical benefactors that have brought these practical advantages to men are usually placed among the gods or at least at some level over the great unwashed. They’ve been the teachers and culture personalities to humanity.

In such cultural mythologies throughout the world it is often the senior deities on high (sky gods) who bestowed presents on mankind changing human culture from the nomadic hunter-gatherers to settlers and a more civilized culture. Presents like agriculture, arts & crafts, the national sciences, trades, technology, etc.. Then there is fire.

From the historical record, all else being equal, likely the individual discoverers of passion of the many cultures across the world would be one of the best remembered of those benefactors. This would obviously be the case, for no greater good has touched person’s physical life than passion. The usefulness of fire (light and heat ) would have been evident to Blind Freddy and it shouldn’t have been difficult to determine what was fuel (wood, leaves, dry grass, etc.) and what wasn’t fuel (stone, sand, etc.); the hard bit would have been coming across flame, or having flame encounter you, to keep it under control and in continuous supply – not allowing it to go out. The next step would have been figuring out the way to artificially make fire.

But that is not what the mythologies relate. Mythologies do not tell us that people themselves discovered fire; found its applications; how to tame fire and how to make fire without immediate advantage of Mother Nature. No, mythologies tell us that fire has been given to us directly, not from the senior gods, but by junior deities, in defiance of the seniors.

Mythologies often are suggestive that the senior gods didn’t for a variety of reasons depending on the society/culture and the origin (who is telling the tale) want to give people the gift of fire. Oddity number two is what is the big deal about fire anyway? It’s nothing like giving a five-year-old a loaded gun! Were the senior gods worried we were then going to strike them with flaming arrows such as Indians attacking a covered wagon train?

However, lesser deities, middle management from the pantheon of gods, frequently trickster gods, sometimes cultural personalities, occasionally spirits disguised as animals often thought humans should have the present and benefit of passion. And that means you have many close universal tales of those beings steading fire from their superiors and giving it to us mortals. Theft or trickery, using deceit of some sort, is almost inseparably connected with people acquiring fire related from cultures all around the world. Oddity number three is the reason why these lesser deities were of the opposite opinion that people should have fire (keeping in mind we’d should have obviously had it anyhow ). Anomaly number four is being of the opinion why centre management deities would behave so defiantly against the directive of the betters. When you resist the top brass you know you are not going to get off lightly. Some, such as Prometheus suffered through repeated grievous physical torture by authority of Zeus for giving us mortals fire, making his (and together their) mutiny all of the odder.

However, the fundamental oddity is still the first one. The Greeks, way back before Methuselah was in diapers, must have known about and used the use of fire.

If the story of the theft and present of fire through Prometheus were the be-all-and-end-all of the’how humanity acquired fire’ narrative, then it could probably be dismissed as pure fiction.

Prometheus is not the only case study of grabbing a hold of passion from senior management. Prometheus, the classical fire giver, is most commonly known in literature. But while Prometheus is connected with the Mediterranean area, the deity Maui belonged to the length and breadth of the Pacific Ocean.

Of all of the helpful gods of Pacific mythology, Maui, the mischievous Polynesian, is beyond question that the protagonist into the largest numbers of countries scattered over that broad expanse of land, including Hawaii. Maui is of course connected with the theft and present of fire.

However, Hawaii is also a society which holds in amazement the strong and somewhat fickle goddess Pele. Hawaiians can’t be ignorant of passion. Does that make Maui immaterial?

It would naturally be supposed that the Hawaiians residing in a volcanic country with ever-flowing fountains of lava could connect their passion myths with a few volcano when relating the story of the source of fire. But like the rest of the Polynesians, Hawaiians discovered fire via Maui instead of naturally in rivers of molten rock.

Polynesians should have brought their passion legends and fire habits with them when they came to the Hawaiian islands of active volcanoes.

Then there is the Maori narrative of fire’s origin, again starring Maui.

It was from her that Maui got the secret of creating fire. Maui, discovering that fire was lost on the ground, resolves to find Mahuika the Fire-goddess and learn the secret art of getting fire. His tricks of course make her angry and, although he obtains the secret of passion, he barely escapes with his life.

Ditto that of Botoque of the central Brazilian tribe that the Kayapo.

It’s worth noting that in many myths not only was firing stolen, but birds indicated by black or red spots one of their feathers were related to the theft. In Brittany the gold or fire-crested wren steals fire and is red-marked while so doing.

Some swiftly-flying bird or fleet-footed coyote would take the stolen fire to the house of the tribe. We’ve Cherokee mythology say the Spider stole fire; tribes of the Pacific Northwest and First Nations peoples relate that fire has been nicked from the Coyote, Beaver or Dog and contributed to humans; based on a Yukon First Nations individuals, Crow stole fire from a volcano; in accordance with the Creek Indians, Rabbit stole fire; ditto that in Algonquin mythology – firing was stolen by Rabbit; them rabbits or hares also stole fire and gave it to the Ojibwas in accordance with their own myths.

The different Bushmen of Africa such as the Pygmies of the Congo stole fire from their God. The Dogons of the Mali have Nummo spirits (heavenly blacksmiths) and one of the first ancestors nicked a bit of the sun in their smithy.

Oddity number five is that the individual writers of those mythological’theft and present of fire’ tales – if myths they’re – could have realized, must have realized, that fire was a natural element of their human environment and for that reason the’gift of passion’ was an unnecessary present and for that reason the theft from the lesser deities was equally unnecessary as was the limitation by the senior sky gods in the first location. If a modern day writer wrote such illogical claptrap they simply would not get published.

Anomaly number six is the reason why in mythologies from diverse areas of the world possess the seniors deciding to withhold fire from humankind; their juniors or other lesser beings humanised animals beating them and stealing fire from them and giving it to us terrestrials. It is an unlikely enough narrative that, fine, may appear once like in Zeus and Prometheus, but not over and over again. So, either we have an outstanding anomalous set of improbable coincidences, or else the story is truly real and thus not mythology in any respect.

Now maybe the’gift of fire’ describes not so much to real fire as to rather the gift of earning fire, as in how to (i.e. – rubbing two sticks together or striking together two stones to create sparks). While that idea is more philosophically akin to the gods giving those other gifts of civilization to humanity, that is not exactly what the mythologies describe. What is described is fire in its pure form that is given out, post theft by lesser gods, not how to create fire.

Analysis: The upshot of all this is that the theft-of-fire mythology isn’t myth but really real. However, the limitations of the seniors and the defiance of the juniors imply that fire was not the real concern . Somehow fire was substituted for something different. That’s something that is not a natural element of their human environment and that is something that if given to people may be akin to this five-year-old holding a very real loaded pistol – or worse.

So if fire at the hands of us primitives is not really a big deal, and because the’gods’ could not stop us from discovering and using fire under any set of circumstances, what would the true concern be? It needs to be something along the character of fire – hot and bright and difficult to control; something which at the hands of people might prove a threat to the gods. Nuclear power and weapons appear to be only a tad too unlikely. We are in need of something between a wonderful campfire and Hiroshima/Nagasaki. What about normal explosives or thermal weapons because the actual’fire’ which has been stolen and given to humankind?

Explosives per state were probably not what was meant by fire. That is a bit too late in historic terms for explosives to have been a present from Prometheus and all those others.

However, using heat for a weapon, thermal weapons, can be dated back to at least the ninth century BC. That is historically more like the age we would like. And how can you quickly and easily generate heat? The actual bit here is that it is not just pure fire which is used as in flaming arrows or burning a wooden fort, or burning plants and areas (scorched earth policy), but flame or warmth augmented by substances and then moved to where it is needed.

By way of example, a whole assortment of heated substances, from water to sand to several petroleum-based compounds (oil, pitch, bitumen etc.) may be thrown on enemy personnel or hurled onto different constructions, fortifications, even boats at sea to be able to destroy or serious harm them.

In regards to early naval warfare, locating and using a chemical substance that burns while drifting on the water, well this could be heaven-sent as it had been. Such compounds forms what today is usually called’Greek fire’ though Greek fire appropriate, however, was not invented until about 672 AD, again a bit too late for Prometheus.

Moreover, various sulphur-based substances and quicklime are useful as toxic/blinding agents. There are smoke bombs which may be utilized as well.

In a nutshell, it was not fire that the senior gods wanted to keep from our grubby little paws, but using thermal weapons via the use of substances and various chemical properties useful in warfare, incendiary mixtures, the fundamental ingredient being heat first and foremost, warmth usually provided by fire.

The unanswerable question is why the reluctance on the part of the senior gods to provide humanity fire, or far more likely something similar to fire but much more dangerous like thermal weaponry technology, and the counterpart unanswerable question why therefore the apparently extreme opposition to this policy from other so-called lesser deities and cultural personalities? The resistance on the other hand guessed it was probably inevitable we’d figure it out for ourselves anyway, and giving the technology to us sooner rather than later after stealing it in the first place from higher power gave the powers-that-be some type of control – the child with the loaded pistol was supervised.

Are you prepared for a tornado

Whirlwind The Baltic Sea Warship Storm Clo

Tornadoes are frightening and destructive events that may change your life in an instant. Discover 3 easy steps in”How to Survive a Tornado 1-2-3 Guide” that can improve your family’s odds of surviving the upcoming big tornado.

1.

Talk beforehand together with family members about your designated location to wait out the tornado. If you don’t have one of them the following best place within your house would be on the bottom floor, closest to the middle of your house, away from any windows or glass. A hallway or bathroom that’s toward the middle of your house is good. Ducking and covering your head in the tub will help to protect you from flying debris.

Periodic tornado drills are an excellent way to prepare your loved ones, especially children, beforehand for a tornado.

If you’re outdoors try to discover a building to take refuge. Steer clear of windows, automobiles and any downed electrical lines.

Understand what the conditions Tornado Watch and Warning imply so that you can act accordingly. If there’s a tornado warning issued in your area it’s your sign to take cover immediately.

For busy weather alarms and monitoring of any storm in advance please see NOAA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
2.

If you reside in a mobile home, it’s prudent to discover a nearby shelter to take cover as mobile homes are much more vulnerable to damage from the high winds of a tornado.

Try to remove as much external storage as possible. Secure little structures, like sheds, to their foundations.
3.

Keep emergency supplies on hand like a Tornado Survival Kit and sufficient food and water to last for a couple of weeks.

Maintain an emergency mobile radio on hand, preferably one that doesn’t require batteries so that you can keep current on the path of this tornado.
Many times when we are preparing for a disaster we neglect to plan for our small four-legged friends. They’re an essential part of the household and their needs will need to be cared for as well.

Make certain your pet has a collar with its own identification on it. Better still, get your pet micro chipped.

Make certain your pets’ medicine is filled.

Set your pet in a difficult carrier cage while you’re riding out the tornado in your designated place.

Make certain your pet is on a leash if you go outside after the tornado has passed. There’s very likely to be many downed electric wires and several dangerous objects from the flying debris of the storm.

Maintain a Pet First Aid Kit on hand if your pet is hurt during the tornado.

If you’re separated from your pet be certain you go in to the local shelter and leave your pets info. Someone may recognize your pet as a way to return back him to you.
Your chances will be greatly increased of living the upcoming major tornado by making a family program, preparing your house and gathering all the essential lifesaving survival supplies before the catastrophe occurs. Therefore, don’t delay. Get prepared!

Caribbean Hurricanes

Earth, Hurricane, Atmosphere, Spiral

Hurricanes are so important to the history of the Dominican Republic, the term itself has its roots there. The native Taino people known as the fierce tropical storms passing through the Caribbean,”hurakans” that is thought to have been derived from the Inca word for their God of Evil. Therefore, the native word hurakan, quickly became integrated into the Spanish language.

The peak of the season falls somewhere between late August and early September. However, you should keep in mind that a number of the deadliest Category 4 and Category 5 hurricanes have shown themselves earlier in the season. To put it differently, it’s not possible to predict for sure when the largest hurricanes of this season will hit.

The Dominican Republic shares the big island of Hispaniola with Haiti. Normally, Hispaniola gets a direct hit with a significant hurricane about every 23 years. But, close calls are a lot more frequent. Hispaniola gets brushed by the outer rings of a significant hurricane about every five years. Moreover, it’s fairly normal for the Dominican Republic to be pounded with tropical storms during the hurricane season. This is the reason why so many people planning a visit to the Dominican Republic are worried about the weather but I will return to this point later.

The intensity of hurricanes in the Caribbean area are grouped by the Saffir-Simpson hurricane intensity scale. The evaluations are based on the highest sustained wind speeds in the wall of the hurricane. In other words, the average rate of all of the winds averaging a minute or longer. Wind gusts associated with hurricanes that last just a few seconds can, and usually arefaster in speed. The Saffir-Simpson intensity ratings are intended to serve as a rough guide to the possible wind damage and storm surge (the wall of sea water that the storm pushes inland) a hurricane can deliver.

It’s important to remember that hurricane strength increases exponentially, not linearly, as you move up the scale by a Category 1 hurricane to a Category 5 hurricane. To put it differently, a Category 4 hurricane isn’t only 4 times as intense as a Category 1 hurricane, it’s about 255 times as intense!

Although it’s important to know more about the different kinds of hurricanes, it’s also important to realize that these classes can sometimes be misleading in regards to the quantity of damage they may inflict. There are instances when a Category 1 hurricane can wreak as much havok for a Category 3 or 4. In these circumstances, you need to look at other factors besides wind speed. By way of instance, a slow moving Category 1 storm may dump a lot more water in a place than a fast moving Category 3 hurricane. The size of the population of an area and the way sound the infrastructure is also very important to just how much damage a hurricane can cause. If there are a whole lot of people around which feeble buildings, a Category 1 or 2 hurricane can be completely devastating.

We should also discuss tropical storms. Tropical storms are described as well organized storms with an eye which has maximum sustained wind speeds ranging between 39-73 miles — in other words, basically a baby hurricane. The ability of these tropical storms shouldn’t be under-estimated just because they do not get called a”storm” in modern terminology. Odette is an instance of a tropical storm which did considerable harm — in actuality, as far as some hurricanes have caused. In 2003, Odette struck the Dominican Republic at 60 mph. Consequently, 85 percent of the banana crop was destroyed in addition to many other crops. Over 60,000 homes were lost throughout the area and 8 individuals were directly killed by the tropical storm. Therefore, you can see a tropical storm is nothing to sneeze at! Needless to say, when the Taino likely talked about”hurakans,” they didn’t make such a differentiation between tropical storms and hurricanes since they’re on the same continuum.

The first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World in 1492 was created in the month of September, usually the busiest month for hurricanes. But he and his crew enjoyed quite pleasant weather that first voyage and never struck a hurricanes. Now that is one for the other novelists to take into account! In Columbus’ second and third voyages that he and his team did encounter hurricanes.In reality, ancient Spanish colonies on Hispaniola, such as Isabella named after the Queen of Spain, were completely destroyed by hurricanes. But it was the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus that made the largest hurricane recorded in those early years of Spanish conquest but the history books have been lacking in pointing out the significance of this hurricane (see below).

In July of 1502, on his 4th voyage to the New World, Columbus noticed a veil of cirrostratus clouds growing, an oily swell coming from the southeast, and a lot of other indicators he took for a storm coming. He delivered a message to Ovando, the Spanish Governor of Hispaniola, to warn him not to send out the Spanish fleet of 30 gold boats which were due to leave for Spain. He also asked for permission to dock his ships in Santo Domingo. Ovando wasn’t a fan of Columbus and mocked his request and sent the fleet of 30 Spanish gold boats in their merry way. As they had been traversing the Mona Passage between the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, 29 of the 30 ships sank, killing everybody on board and dropping the massive fortune of gold. Historians think this hurricane was probably a powerful Category 3 or Category 4 hurricane. Some historians called it the”Columbus Hurricane” because he called it.

There have been many terrible hurricanes and fierce tropical storms in the Dominican Republic over the years — far too many to list them all here. However, I want to mention some of the more notable ones.

San Zenon was a Category 4 hurricane which struck the Dominican Republic in 1930. It’s widely considered among the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes on record. It was a Category 4 which was only under a Category 5 in relation to wind speed with150 mph winds. 2000 people died and it essentially leveled Santo Domingo. San Zenon was a really broad hurricane and its aftermath spread out within a 20 mile radius.

Considering the path of destruction that San Zenon left reminds me when the Taino people called a”hurakan” that they weren’t just referring to the real physical event but also the devastation it leaves in its wake. The lost lives, the accidents, the downed trees, the ruined plants, the ruined structures, the flood… all of this could have been contained from the Taino definition of the word hurricane.

Another hurricane that won’t ever be forgotten in the Dominican Republic was called David. It’s one of the biggest cyclones to be born off the coast of Africa. It was a Category 5 hurricane and it struck August 31, 1979. The wind speed of the catastrophic hurricane was clocked at a whopping 175 mph!! 70% of all of the plants in the country were ruined. 200,000 houses were lost. Entire communities were isolated and the consequences were felt across the whole country, even though the southern area was hardest hit.

Another very memorable storm was George which struck September 22, 1998. Crops were destroyed, pastures for livestock were destroyed, and food had to be brought in from outside the nation or the people would have starved.

Sometimes the smaller Category 1 hurricanes can cause a whole lot of harm and hassle if they hit in just the perfect location. This is definitely true for Jeanne that struck on September 17, 2004. This Category 1 storm affected the very popular tourist area of Punta Cana and other areas on the east shore. Bridges were removed and travel became impossible for some time.

Most visitors to the Dominican Republic aren’t from areas that are hit by hurricanes in order that they might not have a great understanding of what to do if they hear that a hurricane is coming. So, here is some advice on what to do If you’re going to the Dominican Republic during hurricane season. First, you shouldn’t worry too much about hurricanes. Yes, they can be enormous but the probability of a direct hit to your area is extremely low, even in the peak of hurricane season, AND the infrastructure is significantly better today. To put it differently, if you’re staying at a modern hotel, it’s build to withstand hurricanes. Second, do not forget that the resort operators and tour operators have been through hurricanes before and they’re well prepared. They know precisely what to do and they have contingency plans for coping with every possibility. They also have back up satellite communication devices if the principal communication goes down as well as lots of emergency supplies. Therefore, you’ll be safe if you heed their instructions.

The fantastic news about hurricanes is that you get loads of warning when they’re coming, unlike other natural disasters such as tornadoes that may hit with hardly any notice. The resort operators around the Punta Cana coast and south coast of the Dominican Republic are especially well prepared for large weather events. When they get word that a hurricane is coming, and this will occur more than 24 hours beforehand, they will execute their hurricane plans instantly. Furthermore, the buildings around the Punta Cana shore are the most modern and hurricane proof of any you will find anywhere in the whole Caribbean. They’re constructed with concrete blocks and steel rods and designed to withstand high speed storm force winds.

Instant Noodles

Soup, Noodles, Instant, Table, Vegetable

Top Ramen Noodles can be reached in this way to contain plenty of the vitamins and essentials we want. It will make sense and so long as you have heat and water it’s possible to take these packs without cost of gas to get this out of the air.

Now then, if we use these kinds of foods as part of this plan for space colonists on Mars, we maybe able to sustain life working with this idea. When building a colony on Mars, which has water in the kind of ice, it maybe useful to have such foods that do not weigh very much but may be added with water once we eat them. A colony on Mars, which is set near or at the ice cap is logical. By burning a piece of ice, boiling it for security and then adding it, might be the reply to food supply and nutrition.

Even though some work will have to be performed on this idea, it certainly makes plenty of sense to take a small Top Ramen Noodles with you if you will be stuck without food on a different planet or in route during long-term distance flights.